KOBI-2019:Papers with Abstracts

Abstract. West Kalimantan shows many reproductive events of Nereidid worms in estuaries.
The Peniti and Karimunting estuaries become a Nereidid mass spawning site every year. Other estuaries such as the Kapuas river is also the one habitat of the Nereidid worm called the giant Nypa palm worm, Namalycastis rhodochorde. This species has a magnificent length in body size and popular use for fishing bait. The high demand for this worm causes habitat destruction and decreases the population in nature so cultivation efforts are important to do. Basic data encompassing habitat characteristics, reproduction, feeding, development, and larval rearing to enhancing cultivation has been obtained.
Larval and juvenile stocking densities including aquarium installations are currently being studied in the laboratory. Further studies on harvesting techniques, specific
pathogen-free (SPF) products as well as a sustainable production need to be carried out
at industrial aquaculture level.
Abstract. Ethnobiology has become very comprehensive with the very broad and varied topic of discussion and analysis. The application of ethnobiological data has expanded considerably and ethnobiological research has been applied to practical areas such as bio-resources conservation and management, landscape management, and bioprospecting. This presentation explains the main areas of modern ethnobiological research which examines all aspects of the reciprocal relationship between human and biological resources and their ecosystem. Specifically, ethnobiology includes any studies relating to bio-resources, including how they are classified and named, how they are used and managed, and how their exploitation has influenced their evolution. The main area of modern ethnobiological investigation includes (1) Ethnobotany: study of local community knowledge systems and the overall relationship between communities and plant species diversity; ethnobotany study discussed the perceptions and conceptions of the management system of biodiversity and its natural ecosystem diversity; Ethnoecology: study of local knowledge of natural ecosystem and environmental impact of local bio-resources management; (2) Traditional Production Activities System: in this field, local knowledge of traditional production activities system includes agriculture, forestry, local technology and innovation of biological resources management and nature and environmental impact of bio-resources management; (3) Cognitive ethnobiology: a local perception of the natural world through the analysis of symbolism in ritual and myth, and their ecological consequences; organization of knowledge system through ethno-taxonomic study, etc.; (4) Material culture: a local knowledge and use of biodiversity and bio-resources products in art and technology; (5) Traditional bio-phytochemistry: a study of local knowledge and use of bio-resources for bio-chemicals, for example in pest control, poison, pungent, coloring and traditional medicine; and (6) Palaeoethnobiology/Palaeoethnobotany: a study of past interaction between human populations and bio-resources based on the interpretation of archeobiological remains. Currently, ethnobiological data plays an important role in the conservation and sustainable use of bio-recourses.
Abstract. Newcastle Disease (ND) is an infectious disease that infected poultry caused by Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV). NDV is a virus from family Paramyxoviridae which enveloped, unsegmented single strand (ss) RNA negative sense. Fusion (F) protein is an NDV protein that has an important role in the infection process of NDV to the host cell. F protein of NDV can induce the immune response of the host so that it has the potential to become an NDV vaccine. Recombinant plasmid pBT7-N-His-F has been designed by inserting the F protein-encoding gene of NDV. The inserted gene is an F protein of NDV from a local isolate from Galur, Kulon Progo, Yogyakarta. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro expression of the recombinant F of NDV from recombinant plasmid pBT7-N-His-F NDV from E. coli BL-21 clone C-1b. Samples of recombinant plasmid pBT7-N-His-F NDV showed a DNA fragment in size of 4.642 bp. The DNA fragment was then digested by the EcoRI enzyme to separate the pBT7-N-His vector with the F protein-encoding gene as a DNA insert. Restriction digest generated two DNA fragments in the size of 4.001 bp and 642 bp. The in vitro expression of recombinant F protein was conducted using the AccuRapidTM Cell-free Expression system. The visualization of the expressed recombinant F protein using the SDS-PAGE method showed a recombinant protein fragment in size of 25.6 kDa. The Western blotting on the polyvinyl difluoride (PVDF) membrane showed a recombinant protein fragment in size of 25.6 kDa. The recombinant F protein of NDV was successfully in vitro expressed from clone C-1b of recombinant plasmid pBT7-N-His-FNDV by AccuRapidTM Cell-free protein expression system.
Abstract. Higher-Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) is one of the most important aspects to increase the quality of education. However, HOTS in SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Pontianak is considered still not appearing. This can be seen from the practice questions given by the teacher still using the verb C1-C3. Besides that based on the result of interviews with students, the learning pattern applied by biology teachers who still conventional method makes students bored and less motivated to study biology. The use of a joyful learning model is expected to help students to improve their HOTS and motivation in learning. This study aimed to determine the effect of a joyful learning model on students’ HOTS and their learning motivation. This quasi-experimental research involved 30 students of X MIA 1 and X MIA 2 as the sample. Data were collected through test and questionnaires which was analyzed using effect size. The results obtained from the test show that joyful learning model could improvements in the both students’ HOTS and learning motivation, indicated by the value of effect size HOTS obtained at 0,31 which is included in the medium category, and students’ motivation in learning with the effect size value at 1,15 which is categorized as very high. Thus, joyful learning could improve HOTS and learning motivation in senior high school.
Abstract. The study of Austronesian languages classified the Sundanese language within the Malay-Sumbawa group along with Madurese, Aceh, Balinese, Sasak, Sumbawa, and Malay languages. However, The HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium in 2010 reported that the genetic relationship between Sundanese and Javanese people was closer than the one between Sundanese and Malay people. The history of both kingdoms also confirmed the close relationship between Sundanese elites in the west and Javanese elites in the central and east parts of Java. Maternal lineage analysis was done on the mtDNA D-loop region (HVRI and II) from 118 unrelated Sundanese and 33 Javanese probands. We found 12 newly-formed haplotypes (or maternal lineages) as a divergence from one maternal lineage that was characterized by a normal mutation of 186C. These 12 haplotypes were commonly known as the current population of Sundanese and Javanese. Moreover, we also found 11 individual haplotypes that were predicted to be older than the common 12 haplotypes. These older haplotypes were characterized by normal mutations of C64T and C186G. Using a model of K2P, the maternal genetic distance between Sundanese and Javanese populations was 0.12555 or equal to 2190-4622 years of divergence based on the calibration of the mutation rate on both hypervariable regions.
Abstract. Sex determination in monomorphic birds such as masked lovebird (Agapornis personata) based on physical appearance is difficult to conduct. It becomes a problem in the breeding program. Some rapid methods for sex determination have been developed, one of which is molecular sexing based on the amplification of Chromodomain Helicase DNA-binding (CHD) gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method using specific primers. This method is a solution with rapid and accurate results. The aim of this study was to molecular sex determine of masked lovebird by PCR amplification. The feather samples were collected from ten masked lovebirds. DNA was isolated from the chalamus, part of the lovebird feather and it was used as a DNA template for PCR amplification. The PCR products then were electrophoresed in agarose gel and they were visualized by SYBRSafe staining on a UV transilluminator. It showed that a single DNA fragment in size of 400 bp generated for male masked lovebirds and double DNA fragments in size of 350 bp and 400 bp generated for female masked lovebirds.
Abstract. The stomatal number and size influence transpiration, a process of water loss in the plant that cools its environmental temperature. Some dicotyledon plants function as shading plants, especially in the urban area. However stomatal number and size of some plants are not known. This study aimed to know the stomatal number and size in dicotyledon shading plants. The method used factorial completely randomized design (CRD) with the main factors of six dicotyledon plants and plant part of the lowest branch. Whilst the combinations were between the two. The stomatal number and size were sampled using a replica method from these treatments and observed under 10x10 and 10x40 magnification, subsequently. The stomatal number were counted used hand counter and size were measured using a calibrated micrometer. Data were analyzed using SAS with a model of factorial CRD. Both main factors were significant whereas the combinations were not. for stomatal number and size. The highest stomatal number and the largest stomatal size occurred in Syzygium oleana R.Br and Aerva sanguinolenta Bl, subsequently. The Syszygium has the highest number but the smallest size of stomata whereas Aerva sanguinolenta Bl has the other around. The more the leaves developed the smaller number but the bigger size of stomata.
Abstract. Greening in an urban area is a very important role in regulating temperature around. However, not all plants provide the same level of cooling. Cooling environmental temperature can be influenced by transpiration. This study aimed to measure the transpiration rate of dicotyledon plants. The method was a factorial Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with the main factors six dicotyledon species and three plant parts namely the top, middle, and bottom parts of the lowest plant branches with five replications. The data were analyzed using SAS. If the treatments were significant it was followed by the LSD test. The plant species and plant part significantly influenced the transpiration rate; however, the combination of the two did not significantly affect. The highest transpiration rate occurred significantly in Syzygium oleana R.Br (0.013080 gr.cm2.hour) whereas the lowest transpiration rate occurred in Codiaeum variegatum Bl. (0.004147 gr.cm2.hour). The bottom part of the plants (0.009933 gr.cm2.hour) had the highest transpiration rate significantly compared to the middle (0.009633 gr.cm2.hour) and the top (0.007577 gr.cm2.hour). The highest transpiration rate in Syzygium oleana R.Br, as well as the bottom part of the plants, had the potential to reduce its surrounding temperature.
Abstract. Protease is an enzyme with high economic value and has been used in industries. Much natural waste can be considered as promising sources protease producing bacteria, such as tofu waste. The objective of the present study was to screen and isolate protease producing bacteria from tofu waste collected from Yogyakarta. Tofu waste samples were serially diluted and 0.1 ml of sample was spread on skim milk agar, at 37oC for 48 hours. Four bacterial colonies showed a clear zone around the colony, indicating protease activity. These isolates (encoded as TWB-1, TWB-2, TWB-3, and TWB-4) were subjected to several biochemical tests and gram staining. Protease activity was determined using the tyrosine standard curve with the casein-Hammarsten substrate. Protease activity of TWB-1, TWB-2, TWB-3, and TWB-4 were 2.85, 5.74, 5.14, and 3.00 respectively. Isolate TWB-2 showed the maximum protease activity with 5.74 U/ml.
Abstract. Teaching Natural Sciences classes should be done creatively using natural resources as the learning media because the interaction between teachers and students without any media and learning sources will lead to students' lack of interest and low learning outcomes. Additionally, intensive communication between teachers and students needs to be taken into consideration to maximize the teaching-learning process. This study aimed at investigating the difference and the effect of teaching Natural Sciences using local natural resources through a lesson study-based scientific approach to student interest and learning outcomes at SMP Negeri 3 Sungai Raya. This study used quasi- experimental and nonequivalent control group designs. The samples were selected using a purposive sampling technique. The instruments were tests, questionnaires, and observation. The data were statistically analyzed using U-Mann Whitney. The results of the U-Mann Whitney test showed the value of students learning outcomes was 0,000 <0.05 and the value of students' interest was 0,000 <0.05. Besides, the value of the Effect Size of students learning outcomes reached 73.4% and the value of the Effect Size of students learning interest was 55.4%. In conclusion, students learning outcomes and learning interest increase significantly after taught using local natural resources through a lesson study-based scientific approach.
Abstract. This research is an experimental study of an Impact of PjBL on Students’ HOTS in Human Excretion System Material. This research was conducted at SMP Muhammadiyah 1 Pontianak in the odd semester of the 2018/2019 academic year. Before conducted this research, the researcher first observed two months of advanced internship activities from October until November 2018. The study used class VIII D with 25 people for the experimental class and class VIII C with 27 people for the control class. Projects that students will make include the excretory system organ and its functions. The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine the effect of PjBL on students’ HOTS in the human excretion system material. (2) To find out the difference between PjBL and learning using cooperative learning type make a match to students’ HOTS in the Human Excretion System material. Independent sample t-test results obtained a significance value of 2- tailed at 0,000. Because of the significance value <0.05, it can be concluded that PjBL is very influential in students' HOTS. Project-based learning has a very high influence on students' HOTS with an effect size of 1.29 and is included in the very high category.
Abstract. Sambas Regency has regional potentials such as Sambas Botanical Garden with a diversity of ferns. However, the diversity of the ferns has not been used and explored as a learning resource as it has not been well documented. This study aimed to investigate the types of terrestrial ferns found in Sambas Botanical Garden and their potential as a source of learning in the Pteridophyta course. This study used a qualitative method with an exploratory approach. The data source in this study were ferns found in Sambas Botanical Garden and Sambas Botanical Garden master plan document. The data collection techniques used were observation, sampling, identification of plants, and interviews. The data collection tools were observation sheets, sampling equipment, plant identification guides, and interview sheets. The data analysis techniques were data reduction, data presentation, and verification. The results showed there were 9 species included in 7 families. The Blechnaceae family included Blechnum orientale and Stenochlaena palustris species. The Pteridaceae family included the Pityrograma calomelanos species. The Thelypteridaceae family included the Thelypteris sp. and Thelypteris kunthii. The Gleicheniaceae family included the Dicranopteris linearis species. The Dryopteridaceae family included the Nephrolepis biserrata species. The Lycopodiales family included the Lycopodium clavatum species. The Dennstaedtiaceae family included the Lindsaea doryphora species. In other words, the results of the terrestrial ferns in Sambas Botanical Garden have fulfilled the requirements as the learning sources in the Pteridophyta sub material for the high school level. This can be proven by the clarity of the potential, the learning objectives, the objectives, the information revealed, the exploration guidelines, and the expected outcomes. Therefore, ferns diversity found in Sambas Botanical Garden is suitable to be used as the learning resources in the sub material of Pteridophyta.
Abstract. This research was conducted at the Biology Education Study Program IKIP PGRI Pontianak. Indonesia. This study adopts Research and Development (R&D) methods to create interactive multimedia learning resources about invertebrates developed from the Hanafin and Peck models. Three experts and 66 students were involved in this study. The results show that interactive multimedia is valid and therefore suitable for use in invertebrate teaching. The data shows that the media is effective for maximizing cognitive learning outcomes by 77.27%. It can be concluded that this media has a positive impact on the learning process. It is projected that the media will also have an impact on student learning outcomes.
Abstract. Catharanthine bioactive compounds from Catharanthus roseus L. (G.) Don has been studied either in vitro and in vivo. Studies have been conducted to determine the effect of precursor tryptophan on the optimal growth and catharanthine content produced by cell aggregate cultures of Catharanthus roseus. The optimal growth and catharanthine content occur when the aggregate cell growth is good and the content of catharanthine is also high. Aggregate cell C. roseus was cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) with the addition of 2 mg/L NAA and 0.2 mg/L kinetin. Treatment was given with the addition of 150 mg/L tryptophan and the control without tryptophan. Further, the growth and the content of catharanthine were observed in cell aggregates and the medium on day 0, 4, 7, 10, 14, and day- to-21. Catharanthine content analysis was conducted using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) using a VP-ODS column C-18. The optimal growth was different in control and that 150 mg/L treatment tryptophan of cell aggregates and tryptophan may improve the growth and lead to longer growing phase after treatment compared with controls. The growth and catharanthine content are the highest after the tryptophan treatment on cell aggregates occurred on day 14 with the content of 2261.68 ± 17.05 mg/g DW. Subculture and harvest time are the best cells on day 14 after culture, and on day 14 the highest catharanthine content and biomass were obtained. The results of this study are needed to determine the appropriate harvest time on the production of secondary metabolites of catharanthine by in vitro. For future research, the optimal growth and content of catharanthine on the 14th day of culture in the bioreactor in a large scale or industries should be observed.
Abstract. This study aimed to utilize water stew rind of Leucaena leucocephala peel as the natural coloring for cotton fabric at room temperature to reduce heat energy but produce optimum worshippers. The natural coloring processed with mordant lime (CaCO3), alum Al2(SO4)3, and ferro sulfate (FeSO4). The research found out that L. leucocephala peel can be used for the cotton fabric natural coloring with light brown to brown. A color produced depends on the type used in dyeing. A method of staining proved to be good because the results obtained the color field and permanent. When compared with tree mordants, color absorption with lime was better. The darker color for the same treatment could be seen. The analysis results of ironing dry generally ranged between good to excellent (scale 4-5). The benefit of L. leucocephala peel can be used as a natural coloring and defended its color by mordant addition.
Abstract. In the 21st century, there are some competencies that all students must have such as critical and creative thinking, and innovation which is included in Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS). However, the accomplishment of HOTS in Indonesia is still considered low, and reading, mind mapping, sharing (RMS) hasn’t been used in improving HOTS. In the RMS model, the students learn to make a mind map that helps them to think and become creative in one activity. Therefore, it is necessary to research about students’ HOTS with RMS learning model. This study aimed to see the effectivity of the RMS learning model on students’ HOTS in biology. The method used in this research was quasi-experimental with a non-equivalent group design. The sampling technique used in SMAN 1 Ambawang of Kubu Raya Regency was a purposive sampling technique with class XI MIPA 3 as experimental class and class XI MIPA 4 as a control class. The study showed that the RMS learning model was effective (effect size = 0.6 or categorized in medium level) and could give an impact on students’ HOTS in learning the material of the human reproductive system. The result of average Gain value to test the impact of RMS towards students’ HOTS for class XI MIPA 3 was 45.51 and for class XI MIPA 4 was 38.10. The effectivity of RMS was tested with effect size test and the result showed is 0.6, characterized as medium level.
Abstract. The selection of starter bacteria in yoghurt fermentation is important to produce yoghurt with good quality. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in “tempoyak” (local fermented durian pulp) have the potential to be starter bacteria for making yoghurt because the yoghurt fermentation process is the same as the tempoyak fermentation. This study aimed to isolate and identify morphological and biochemical characterization of LAB from tempoyak which will be used as starter bacteria. LAB selection was based on their ability to produce acid compounds and lactase. LAB isolates were identified based on morphological and biochemical tests. The results of the study obtained 23 isolates of the LAB with the same colony characteristics namely round shape, broken white color with convex elevation and smooth surface, and entire edge. Selection of acid-producing and lactase-producing LAB obtained six isolates (Tp-1, Tp-2, Tp-3, Tp-7, Tp-12, and Tp-19). The biochemical test showed six LABs were gram-positive bacteria, non-endospore, non- motile, and catalase-negative.
Abstract. Sharks have a role as the top predator in the ecosystem whose job is to maintain the balance of the ecosystem. The existence of sharks is difficult for the ecosystem, if the shark has difficulty extinction then the balance of the ecosystem becomes difficult. The extinction of sharks is increasing due to human activities and the higher market demand for shark fins. The purpose of this study was to inventory, manage, and conservation status of sharks landed at TPI Pantai Utara Jawa Tengah. Sampling was done by purposive sampling, namely the fleet that landed sharks in TPI Pantai Utara Jawa Tengah. This research was conducted from June to September 2019. Based on the research results, five types of sharks were obtained, namely Carcharhinus brevipinna, Carcharinus longimanus, Carcharhinus sealei, Chiloscyllium punctatum, and Alopias pelagicus. From information obtained from fisheries in various TPI Pantai Utara Jawa Tengah, for small scale fisheries, all parts of sharks will be used, in general, fishermen sell sharks to collectors as a whole. While for large-scale fisheries/factories, they generally only use shark fins and move them back to the ocean where their fins have been taken. Based on the challenging status of IUCN, 1 species is included in the critical category, 1 type is included in the threatened category, 2 types are included in the vulnerable category, and 1 type is included in the near-threatened category.
Abstract. The benefits of ornamental plants are not only for aesthetic values but also for cooling down its environmental temperature. This cooling effect is due to the transpiration rate. The transpiration rate is influenced by the stomatal number and size. This study aimed to measure the stomatal number and size of monocotyledon plants. The method used factorial Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The main treatment factors were six monocotyledon plant species and three plant parts namely top, middle, and bottom plant parts, and a combination of the treatments was between the two with five replications. The data were analyzed using SAS with the model of factorial CRD and if the treatments were significant it was followed by LSD test. Plant species, plant parts, and the combination between the two significantly influenced on stomatal number and size. Cordyline fruticosa had the highest stomata number (340) significantly compared to others while Rhoeo discolor had the lowest one (30). However, Rhoeo discolor had the largest stomatal size (2285,7 μm) significantly compared to others while Cordyline fruticosa had the smallest (114,1 μm). Top plant parts had the highest stomatal number (172) significantly compared to the middle (141) and bottom parts (138). The stomatal number correlated inversely with stomatal size both in plant species and plant parts.
Abstract. This study aimed to develop and determine the quality of inquiry-based science practicum modules for science teachers and find out the teacher's response in using the inquiry-based science practicum modules. This research adopted Research and Development (R&D) method by Borg & Gall (2003). The data collection was performed by indirect communication using an expert validation questionnaire to determine the quality of the module, and the response questionnaire to find out the teacher's response to inquiry-based science practicum modules. The results showed that inquiry-based science practicum modules for science teachers could be developed and had decent quality based on the material (76.85) and media experts (81.18). Teachers’ responses to inquiry-based science practicum modules were classified very well with a percentage of 89.31%. The development of inquiry-based science practicum modules was expected to be used as reference material for science teachers in implementing practicum, which is one way to implement scientific processes and scientific attitudes in science learning.
Abstract. Stomatal size is very important related to the transpiration rate. Stomatal types relate to the genetic relationship. This research aimed to describe the stomatal size and type from the shading and ornamental plants in Pontianak. The stomatal sizes and types were measured under 10x10 and 10x40 of magnification subsequently, equipped with a standardized micrometer. Of the 26 plants species, the longest stomata were found in Rhoe discolor (74.44 μm) and the shortest in Mangifera indica L. (15.65 μm) whilst the widest stomata were found in Rhoe discolor (42.08 μm) and the narrowest was found in Morinda citrifolia L., Syzygium malaccense L., and Chlorophytum comosum with the width was only 9.71 μm. There were three stomatal types (paracytic, anomocytic, and anisocytic) that were found in 20 dicotyledon plants and four stomatal types (type 1, 2, 3, and 4) were found in six monocotyledon plants. The most common type was paracytic found in 11 dicotyledon plants. This stomatal size becomes the foundation to do further research related to the transpiration rate whereas stomatal types can indicate the closeness of the genetic relationship.
Abstract. Red Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) is widely distributed in Indonesia and its antioxidant ability is unknown. This study was performed to evaluate the antioxidant activities of red okra pods extracts. The powder of red okra was extracted by reflux. The first extraction used n-hexane (three times). Ethyl acetate was used to extract the residue (three times). Then, the residue was extracted three times using ethanol. Antioxidant activities were tested using DPPH and FRAP assays. This study showed that ethanol extract showed the highest antioxidant activity, which had the lowest IC50 DPPH (39.8 µg/mL) and the highest FRAP (89.15 µmol Fe2+/g). The result of DPPH and FRAP methods indicates that ethanol extract of red okra pods is classified as a very strong antioxidant.